Vast Usages of Concrete During Building Construction
Concrete is a kind of composed material. This is basically a composition of some constituent components like cement or fluid cement, aggregates, sand, water and some other components. When these components are mixed well, these altogether take the form of a stiff material with the passing of time. The word “Concrete” refers to something that is very compact or condensed. This originates from a Latin word “concretus”.
Components of Concrete
Concrete is a construction material. There are different types of components which participate in a chemical reaction and all of those response to it with perfection. This reaction forms a harden material. As mentioned before, the basic components of a concrete are cement water, sand, coarse aggregates. Many types of cement are then used in the composition of concrete. All these harden well and are also able to resist sulphate.
Process of Making Concrete
There are different types of concrete and the difference depends on factors like strength, quantity or workability. The most important rule to make a strong concrete is to mix the ingredients in a right proportion.
Mostly what matters is the ratio of cement and water used in the preparation of concrete. This process of mixing can be divided in two basic parts.
- Nominal mix: Nominal mixing is applied mostly while constructing small buildings. The most popular ratio for nominal mixing is considered to be 1:2:4. This ratio is able to bring strength to a concrete that is used for construction.
- Design mix: The other type of mixing is known as design mix concrete. In this method the proportion is decided after doing a lot of laboratory test. The ingredients that are used in this method are often available in the nearby local stores. The test is done to check the compressive strength that is whether a concrete can provide durability as per the structural design. The Components are also used in accordance to that.
The Strength and capability of these concretes are identified as M5, M10, M15, M20, M30 etc. In all these M stand for the mixing of the proportions and the numeric part tell about the strength of the concrete which is also measured as kN/m2.
The ratio of the cement and water is given more importance because when all the ingredients are mixed these two components start to participate in hydration reaction and also help the other components to bind together in a stiff matrix and ultimately giving shape of condensed concrete which is sturdier than a hard stone.
Thus, depending on the requirements of quality and quantity the mixing method is chosen.
History and Evolution of Concrete
In the era of 700 BC the concept of Concrete was first introduced by the tribe of Bedouins. In that time the production of material was not in a larger scale. The Bedouins first got to know the quantity of a hydraulic time that can cement itself. This was then used for making several things to protect themselves. The Ancient Egyptians discovered that the volcanic ash can to add with lime and water, to make Concrete. As a theory, it was evident that the Romans used quick lime, pozzolana, pumice stone as concrete materials. Even many Roman architectures have been reported to build Concrete by these components.
The importance of the usage of concrete is indeed numerous. It is an integral part of modern architectural assignment. The characteristics of the Concrete include formation in ambient heat, get into different shapes, water resisting ability, and high heat resistance ability. All these qualities and many more have made it more demanding in today’s construction industries.